Research data policies and services

Research Data Policy Types

The 4 types of research data policy are provided in full below. These policy texts are templates and journals may make minor changes to fit with their journal scope and website style. See FAQs for a summary of the requirements of each policy type.

Springer Nature has made the research data policy texts, unless otherwise stated, available for reuse by the research data community under a Creative Commons attribution license.

Here are examples of journals that support each policy type:

Policy TypePolicy summaryExample Journal
Type 1Data sharing and data citation is encouragedPhotosynthesis Research (click, ‘Instructions for Authors’) 
Type 2 Data sharing and evidence of data sharing encouraged   Plant and Soil (click, ‘Instructions for Authors’)
Type 3Data sharing encouraged and statements of data availability requiredPalgrave Communications (see Editorial policies)
Type 4 Data sharing, evidence of data sharing and peer review of data requiredScientific Data (see Data policies)

The list of Springer Nature journals that have adopted one of these policies can be found here. Please contact the Research Data Support Helpdesk if you have any questions.

Research data policies in full

Research Data Policy Type 1

The journal encourages authors, where possible and applicable, to deposit data that support the findings of their research in a public repository. Authors and editors who do not have a preferred repository should consult Springer Nature’s list of repositories and research data policy.

General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may also be used.

Datasets that are assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) by a data repository may be cited in the reference list. Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite: authors, title, publisher (repository name), identifier.

Springer Nature provides a research data policy support service for authors and editors, which can be contacted at researchdata@springernature.com.

This service provides advice on research data policy compliance and on finding research data repositories. It is independent of journal, book and conference proceedings editorial offices and does not advise on specific manuscripts.

Research Data Policy Type 1 by Springer Nature is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Research Data Policy Type 2 (for life sciences)

A submission to the journal implies that materials described in the manuscript, including all relevant raw data, will be freely available to any researcher wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes, without breaching participant confidentiality.

The journal strongly encourages that all datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely should be available to readers. We encourage authors to ensure that their datasets are either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files whenever possible. Please see Springer Nature’s information on recommended repositories.

General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may be used where appropriate.

Datasets that are assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) by a data repository may be cited in the reference list. Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite: authors, title, publisher (repository name), identifier.

Where a widely established research community expectation for data archiving in public repositories exists, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory. Persistent identifiers (such as DOIs and accession numbers) for relevant datasets must be provided in the paper.

For the following types of data set, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory:

Mandatory depositionSuitable repositories
Protein sequencesUniprot
DNA and RNA sequences

Genbank

DNA DataBank of Japan (DDBJ)

EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database (ENA)

DNA and RNA sequencing data

NCBI Trace Archive

NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA)
Genetic polymorphisms

dbSNP

dbVar

European Variation Archive (EVA)

Linked genotype and phenotype data

dbGAP

The European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA)

Macromolecular structure

Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB)

Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank (BMRB)

Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB)

Microarray data (must be MIAME compliant)Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)

ArrayExpress

Crystallographic data for small moleculesCambridge Structural Database

For more information:

Data availability

The journal encourages authors to provide a statement of Data availability in their article. Data availability statements should include information on where data supporting the results reported in the article can be found, including, where applicable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the study. Data availability statements can also indicate whether data are available on request from the authors and where no data are available, if appropriate.


Data Availability statements can take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if required for multiple datasets):

  1. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS]
  2. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due [REASON WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLIC] but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  3. The datasets during and/or analysed during the current study available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  4. Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.
  5. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article [and its supplementary information files].

More examples of template data availability statements, which include examples of openly available and restricted access datasets, are available:

Springer Nature provides a research data policy support service for authors and editors, which can be contacted at researchdata@springernature.com.

This service provides advice on research data policy compliance and on finding research data repositories. It is independent of journal, book and conference proceedings editorial offices and does not advise on specific manuscripts.

Research Data Policy Type 2 (for life sciences) by Springer Nature is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Research Data Policy Type 2 (non life sciences)

A submission to the journal implies that materials described in the manuscript, including all relevant raw data, will be freely available to any researcher wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes, without breaching participant confidentiality.

The journal strongly encourages that all datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely should be available to readers. We encourage authors to ensure that their datasets are either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files whenever possible. Please see Springer Nature’s information on recommended repositories.

General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may be used where appropriate.

Datasets that are assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) by a data repository may be cited in the reference list. Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite: authors, title, publisher (repository name), identifier.

Where a widely established research community expectation for data archiving in public repositories exists, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory. Persistent identifiers (such as DOIs and accession numbers) for relevant datasets must be provided in the paper.

For more information:

Data availability

The journal encourages authors to provide a statement of Data availability in their article. Data availability statements should include information on where data supporting the results reported in the article can be found, including, where applicable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the study. Data availability statements can also indicate whether data are available on request from the authors and where no data are available, if appropriate.


Data Availability statements can take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if required for multiple datasets):

  1. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS]
  2. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due [REASON WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLIC] but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  3. The datasets during and/or analysed during the current study available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  4. Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.
  5. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article [and its supplementary information files].

More examples of template data availability statements, which include examples of openly available and restricted access datasets, are available:

Springer Nature provides a research data policy support service for authors and editors, which can be contacted at researchdata@springernature.com.

This service provides advice on research data policy compliance and on finding research data repositories. It is independent of journal, book and conference proceedings editorial offices and does not advise on specific manuscripts.

Research Data Policy Type 2 by Springer Nature is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Research Data Policy Type 3 (for life sciences)

A submission to the journal implies that materials described in the manuscript, including all relevant raw data, will be freely available to any researcher wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes, without breaching participant confidentiality.

The journal strongly encourages that all datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely should be available to readers. We encourage authors to ensure that their datasets are either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files whenever possible. Please see Springer Nature’s information on recommended repositories.

General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may be used where appropriate.

Where a widely established research community expectation for data archiving in public repositories exists, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory.

Persistent identifiers (such as DOIs and accession numbers) for relevant datasets must be provided in the paper.

For the following types of data set, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory:

Mandatory depositionSuitable repositories
Protein sequencesUniprot
DNA and RNA sequences

Genbank

DNA DataBank of Japan (DDBJ)

EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database (ENA)

DNA and RNA sequencing data

NCBI Trace Archive

NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA)
Genetic polymorphisms

dbSNP

dbVar

European Variation Archive (EVA)

Linked genotype and phenotype data

dbGAP

The European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA)

Macromolecular structure

Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB)

Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank (BMRB)

Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB)

Microarray data (must be MIAME compliant)Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)

ArrayExpress

Crystallographic data for small moleculesCambridge Structural Database

For more information:

Data availability

All original articles must include a Data availability statement. Data availability statements should include information on where data supporting the results reported in the article can be found including, where applicable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the study. By data we mean the minimal dataset that would be necessary to interpret, replicate and build upon the findings reported in the article. We recognise it is not always possible to share research data publicly, for instance when individual privacy could be compromised, and in such instances data availability should still be stated in the manuscript along with any conditions for access. Data Availability statements can take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if required for multiple datasets):

  1. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS]
  2. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due [REASON WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLIC] but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  3. The datasets during and/or analysed during the current study available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  4. Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.
  5. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article [and its supplementary information files].
  6. The data that support the findings of this study are available from [third party name] but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available. Data are however available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of [third party name].

More examples of template data availability statements, which include examples of openly available and restricted access datasets, are available:

The journal also requires that authors cite any publicly available data on which the conclusions of the paper rely in the manuscript. Data citations should include a persistent identifier (such as a DOI) and should ideally be included in the reference list. Citations of datasets, when they appear in the reference list, should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite and follow journal style. Dataset identifiers including DOIs should be expressed as full URLs.

Research data and peer review

Peer reviewers are encouraged to check the manuscript’s Data availability statement, where applicable. They should consider if the authors have complied with the journal’s policy on the availability of research data, and whether reasonable effort has been made to make the data that support the findings of the study available for replication or reuse by other researchers. Peer reviewers are entitled to request access to underlying data (and code) when needed for them to perform their evaluation of a manuscript.

 

Springer Nature provides a research data policy support service for authors and editors, which can be contacted at researchdata@springernature.com.

This service provides advice on research data policy compliance and on finding research data repositories. It is independent of journal, book and conference proceedings editorial offices and does not advise on specific manuscripts.

Research Data Policy Type 3 (for life sciences) by Springer Nature is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License  

Research Data Policy Type 3 (non life sciences)

A submission to the journal implies that materials described in the manuscript, including all relevant raw data, will be freely available to any researcher wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes, without breaching participant confidentiality.
The journal strongly encourages that all datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely should be available to readers. We encourage authors to ensure that their datasets are either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files whenever possible. Please see Springer Nature’s information on recommended repositories.

General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may be used where appropriate.

Where a widely established research community expectation for data archiving in public repositories exists, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory.

Persistent identifiers (such as DOIs and accession numbers) for relevant datasets must be provided in the paper.

For more information:

Data availability

All original articles must include a Data availability statement. Data availability statements should include information on where data supporting the results reported in the article can be found including, where applicable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the study. By data we mean the minimal dataset that would be necessary to interpret, replicate and build upon the findings reported in the article. We recognise it is not always possible to share research data publicly, for instance when individual privacy could be compromised, and in such instances data availability should still be stated in the manuscript along with any conditions for access. Data Availability statements can take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if required for multiple datasets):

  1. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS]
  2. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due [REASON WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLIC] but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  3. The datasets during and/or analysed during the current study available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  4. Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.
  5. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article [and its supplementary information files].
  6. The data that support the findings of this study are available from [third party name] but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available. Data are however available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of [third party name].

More examples of template data availability statements, which include examples of openly available and restricted access datasets, are available:

The journal also requires that authors cite any publicly available data on which the conclusions of the paper rely in the manuscript. Data citations should include a persistent identifier (such as a DOI) and should ideally be included in the reference list. Citations of datasets, when they appear in the reference list, should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite and follow journal style. Dataset identifiers including DOIs should be expressed as full URLs.

Research data and peer review

Peer reviewers are encouraged to check the manuscript’s Data availability statement, where applicable. They should consider if the authors have complied with the journal’s policy on the availability of research data, and whether reasonable effort has been made to make the data that support the findings of the study available for replication or reuse by other researchers. Peer reviewers are entitled to request access to underlying data (and code) when needed for them to perform their evaluation of a manuscript.

Springer Nature provides a research data policy support service for authors and editors, which can be contacted at  researchdata@springernature.com .

This service provides advice on research data policy compliance and on finding research data repositories. It is independent of journal, book and conference proceedings editorial offices and does not advise on specific manuscripts.

Research Data Policy Type 3 by Springer Nature is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Research Data Policy Type 4

The journal requires that all datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely be available to reviewers and readers. Authors must deposit their datasets in publicly available repositories prior to peer review, or include them as supplementary information files with their manuscript. It is a condition of publication that authors deposit their data in an appropriate repository, and agree to make the data publicly available without restriction, unless reasonable controls on data access are needed to protect human privacy or biosafety. Please see Springer Nature’s information on recommended repositories.

General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may be used where appropriate.

For more information:

Data availability

All original articles must include a Data availability statement. Data availability statements should include information on where data supporting the results reported in the article can be found including, where applicable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the study. By data we mean the minimal dataset that would be necessary to interpret, replicate and build upon the findings reported in the article. We recognise it is not always possible to share research data publicly, for instance when individual privacy could be compromised, and in such instances data availability should still be stated in the manuscript along with any conditions for access. Data Availability statements can take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if required for multiple datasets):

  1. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS]
  2. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due [REASON WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLIC] but are available [STATE CONDITIONS FOR ACCESS].
  3. Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.
  4. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article [and its supplementary information files].

More examples of template data availability statements, which include examples of openly available and restricted access datasets, are available:

The journal also requires that authors cite any publicly available data on which the conclusions of the paper rely in the manuscript. Data citations should include a persistent identifier (such as a DOI) and should ideally be included in the reference list. Citations of datasets, when they appear in the reference list, should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite and follow journal style. Dataset identifiers including DOIs should be expressed as full URLs.

Research data and peer review

Peer reviewers should consider a manuscript’s Data availability statement (DAS), where applicable. They should consider if the authors have complied with the journal’s policy on the availability of research data, and whether reasonable effort has been made to make the data that support the findings of the study available for replication or reuse by other researchers.

For the Data availability statement, reviewers should consider:

  • Has an appropriate DAS been provided?
  • Is it clear how a reader can access the data?
  • Where links are provided in the DAS, are they working/valid?
  • Where data access is restricted, are the access controls warranted and appropriate?
  • Where data are described as being included with the manuscript and/or supplementary information files, is this accurate?

For the data files, where available, reviewers should consider:

  • Are the data in the most appropriate repository?
  • Were the data produced in a rigorous and methodologically sound manner?
  • Are data and any metadata consistent with file format and reporting standards of the research community?
  • Are the data files deposited by the authors complete and do they match the descriptions in the manuscript?
  • Do they contain personally identifiable, sensitive or inappropriate information?

Springer Nature provides a research data policy support service for authors and editors, which can be contacted at researchdata@springernature.com.

This service provides advice on research data policy compliance and on finding research data repositories. It is independent of journal, book and conference proceedings editorial offices and does not advise on specific manuscripts.

Research Data Policy Type 4  by Springer Nature is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License