Medicine and Public Health

Browse the following groundbreaking articles nominated by our Editors-in-Chief and read why they believe they could help change the world.

Enjoy free access until the end of July, 2017. Open access articles are freely available online on a permanent basis.


Towards precision medicine

This paper offers practical advice on how genomic strategies can be adapted to fit clinical needs.

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Big data analytics to improve cardiovascular care: promise and challenges

In the age of digital medicine, this review describes how big data can be harnessed to improve cardiovascular quality of care and patient outcomes.

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Tuberculosis

The End TB Strategy aims to reduce TB deaths by 95% and to cut the number of new cases by 90% by 2035; here's a summary of what's being done to achieve these ambitious goals.

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Obesity-related glomerulopathy: clinical and pathologic characteristics and pathogenesis

A comprehensive overview of the pathology, clinical features, treatment and pathogenesis of obesity-related glomerulopathy.

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Global strategies are required to cure and eliminate HBV infection

This must-read article is a call to action for international efforts to advance scientific research towards a cure for hepatitis B virus infection worldwide.

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The role of diet and exercise in the transgenerational epigenetic landscape of T2DM

Presents a must-read update on the transgenerational epigenetic landscape of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity.

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HPV-FASTER: broadening the scope for prevention of HPV-related cancer

Showcases an initiative to broaden HPV vaccination coupled with HPV testing to reduce the incidence of HPV infections and cervical cancer worldwide.

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Biomarkers in Search of Precision Medicine in IBD

How the promise of "precision medicine" can have the greatest impact for those suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).

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Fine particles, genetic pathways, and markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction: Analysis on particulate species and sources

A growing body of evidence points to connections between a wide range of environmental factors and risk of cardiovascular disease. This article shows how multiple lines of evidence can help identify the causes and reduce cardiovascular events from exposure to oil combustion particles.

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The Gut Microbiome as Therapeutic Target in Central Nervous System Diseases: Implications for Stroke

This review summarizes studies linking gut microbiota with the physiological function and disorders of the central nervous system. The authors speculate about targeting the gut microbiome in order to treat stroke.

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Health Equity Assessment Toolkit (HEAT): software for exploring and comparing health inequalities in countries

Health inequalities in any given country can be assessed to inform policymakers and provide the basis for national priority-setting using this software tool developed by the WHO.

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Agile science: creating useful products for behavior change in the real world

This article discusses how to create useful products for changing patients' health behaviors in the real world.

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Pathologists and liquid biopsies: to be or not to be?

Cancer care is currently undergoing both a state of change, and a change of state. Liquid biopsies will increasingly be used in diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up.

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What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets? —a systematic review

This systematic review assesses the effectiveness of health interventions aiming to promote healthy food purchase behavior at food stores, which are important environmental settings that play a major role in calories consumed and therefore in obesity prevention.

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Smoking and progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes

Smoking is a risk factor for the progression of diabetic nephropathy, and the risk increases with the increased intensity of smoking.

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Pineal region tumors: a simplified management scheme

This paper provides guidance on the optimal management of rare pediatric tumors of the pineal region, a perennially controversial issue.

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Partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition in keloid scars: regulation of keloid keratinocyte gene expression by transforming growth factor-β1

Previous work has identified abnormalities in keratinocytes isolated from keloid. These cells displayed changes in adhesion, motility, and differentiation, and altered the expression of numerous genes involved in a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

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The health and economic benefits of the global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (2000–2014)

Thanks to the first 15 years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, an estimated 36 million clinical cases and 175 (116–250) million DALYs will potentially be averted and US$100.5 billion will potentially be saved over the lifetimes of the benefit cohorts. This study identifies the program's health and economic benefits, and stresses the importance of continued investment.

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Exergaming (XBOX Kinect™) versus traditional gym-based exercise for postural control, flow and technology acceptance in healthy adults: a randomised controlled trial

Game on! Exergaming using XBOX Kinect™ has the potential to enhance postural control compared to standard gym-based exercise and is perceived as less demanding.

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Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer consensus statement on immunotherapy for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma

Expert treatment recommendations for clinicians caring for patients with RCC: the current and potential future role of immunotherapy for RCC.

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Management and control of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB): Addressing policy needs for India

India has the largest number of people suffering from tuberculosis (TB) of any country in the world. This article provides realistic suggestions for policymakers and program planners to improve the management and control of MDR-TB in India.

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Chlamydial Antibiotic Resistance and Treatment Failure in Veterinary and Human Medicine

This article explores new evidence of antibiotic resistance in human chlamydial infections, as well as possible mechanisms explaining treatment failure.

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Screening for non-adherence to antihypertensive treatment as a part of the diagnostic pathway to renal denervation

Findings indicate a high prevalence of medication non-adherence in hypertensive patients referred for costly and invasive renal denervation. Addressing this issue could significantly reduce the number of unsuitable procedures performed.

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Systematic review to understand and improve care after stillbirth: a review of parents’ and healthcare professionals’ experiences

This paper forms part of the 'Ending Preventable Stillbirths' article collection in BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. It is estimated that 2.6 million babies are stillborn each year worldwide, ultimately affecting mothers, families, health services and nations. More needs to be done to address stillbirths, one of the most neglected areas of public health.

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Data from Controlled Metabolic Ward Studies Provide Guidance for the Determination of Status Indicators and Dietary Requirements for Magnesium

This article offers valuable advice on magnesium requirements, and magnesium's role as a status indicator for health and well-being.

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Human as the Ultimate Wound Healing Model: Strategies for Studies Investigating the Dermal Lipidome

This review article introduces the reader to the multiple roles of the human epidermal lipidome, and to experimental techniques for measuring them during the wound healing process.

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The Microbiota, Immunoregulation, and Mental Health: Implications for Public Health

This paper presents state-of-the-art evidence supporting the hygiene hypothesis, which proposes that the epidemic of inflammatory disease in urban societies stems at least in part from reduced exposure to the microbes that normally suppress inappropriate inflammation.

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Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells derived from defined CD8+ and CD4+ subsets confer superior antitumor reactivity in vivo.

Up to date selection of T cell subclones to enhance the specificity of anti-tumor immunotherapy. These findings have important implications for the formulation of T-cell products used in adoptive therapies.

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Addressing End-of-Life Care in Cancer Patients through “Ubuntu”: Lessons Learned from Rwanda in Global Health Perspective of Humanity

As a Rwandan physician, I believe that health care, and palliative care in particular, can help restore the humanity sacrificed in Rwanda’s genocide, promoting equity, compassion, social justice, and a path to a healthier world.

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The Microbiome: a Revolution in Treatment for Rheumatic Diseases?

As the list of rheumatic diseases influenced by the microbiome continues to grow, strategies to alter the microbiome may assume an important role in future therapy.

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Breaking sitting with light activities vs structured exercise: a randomised crossover study demonstrating benefits for glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes

Diabetes accounts for 1.5M deaths/year. This article provides concrete advice on how to overcome barriers to health and guide policy so as to improve quality of life.

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Two models of multiple family therapy in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa: a systematic review

This article representa a major step toward determining the value of different models of multiple family therapy in the treatment of anorexia nervosa.

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Interobserver Variation Among Pathologists in Evaluating Perineural Invasion for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

This article argues that standardizing important prognostic factors, like perineural invasion, will yield better outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinoma.

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DNA methylation dynamics in human induced pluripotent stem cells

Epigenetic research in the field of human iPS cells not only helps to elucidate reprogramming and differentiation mechanisms in biology, but also aids in the establishment of an evaluation standard for human iPS cells in medical applications.

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Beta-Lactam Infusion in Severe Sepsis (BLISS): a prospective, two-centre, open-labelled randomised controlled trial of continuous versus intermittent beta-lactam infusion in critically ill patients with severe sepsis

Continuous beta-lactam infusion may be most advantageous for patients with high levels of illness severity and who aren't receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT).

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Systematic review: antihypertensive drug therapy in patients of African and South Asian ethnicity

Meta-analysis of antihypertensive drug treatment in patients with African and South Asian ancestry may help to reduce their excess cardiovascular mortality in Europe.

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Training Cambodian Village Health Support Guides in Diabetes Prevention: Effects on Guides’ Knowledge and Teaching Activities Over 6 Months

Describes a successful program to train rural Cambodian "village guides" to promote diabetes prevention in their villages: a model for lifestyle-related disease prevention in developing countries.

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Women’s beliefs about medication use during their pregnancy: a UK perspective

Pregnant women should be encouraged to discuss their concerns about taking certain medicines with healthcare professionals, so as to ensure they receive timely and effective treatment.

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Gender identity, gender assignment and reassignment in individuals with disorders of sex development: a major of dilemma

Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) are a wide range of congenital conditions characterized by an incongruence of components. This article provides a comprehensive overview of this complex and delicate medical problem, including correct gender assignment to prevent distress.

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Reappraisal of the indication for radioiodine thyroid ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer patients

This article addresses radiodine thyroid remnant ablation in differentiated thyroid carcinoma, summarizing new methodologies and the concept of risk-based selection of patients.

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Lifestyle Risk Factors Among People Who Have Had Cancer Genetic Testing

This paper presents compelling empirical evidence for the impact of lifestyle changes in the face of genetic risk.

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Importance of Interprofessional Healthcare for Vulnerable Refugee Populations

This article reveals how interprofessional health teams may help to overcome barriers in providing care to refugees in the light of diverse cultures, personal experiences and lack of familiarity.

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A best practice position statement on pregnancy in chronic kidney disease: the Italian Study Group on Kidney and Pregnancy

A position statement to discuss experiences in the clinical management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in pregnancy.

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Prognostic value of the cadmium-zinc-telluride camera: A comparison with a conventional (Anger) camera

This Duke Medical Center study demonstrates how a cadmium-zinc-telluride camera reduces patient exposure to radiation and overall imaging time in SPECT studies.

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Intratracheal transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells simultaneously attenuates both lung and brain injuries in hyperoxic newborn

Mesenchymal stem cells administered intratracheally can reduce hyperoxic lung and brain injury. This treatment could yield improved outcomes for ventilated newborn infants, and potentially the elderly.

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Neighborhood-Level and Spatial Characteristics Associated with Lay Naloxone Reversal Events and Opioid Overdose Deaths

This paper presents a timely study on the epidemic of opiate overdose in the United States.

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An international consensus approach to the management of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in children

This review addresses key questions on atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) in children faced by clinicians worldwide, and presents evidence-based answers where available.

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Islam, Assisted Reproduction, and the Bioethical Aftermath

This article break new ground by examining the largely unresearched role of assisted reproduction in Islam with regard to bioethical issues.

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