In the Results section, simply state what you found, but do not interpret the results or discuss their implications.

As in the Methods and Materials section, use subheadings to separate the results of different experiments.

Results should be presented in a logical order. In general, this will be in order of importance, not necessarily the order in which the experiments were performed. Use the past tense to describe your results; however, refer to figures and tables in the present tense.

Do not duplicate data among figures, tables, and text. A common mistake is to re-state much of the data from a table in the text of the manuscript. Instead, use the text to summarize what the reader will find in the table, or mention one or two of the most important data points. It is usually much easier to read data in a table than in the text.

Include the results of statistical analyses in the text, usually by providing p values wherever statistically significant differences are described.

Discussion and Conclusions

Your Discussion and Conclusions sections should answer the question: What do your results mean?

  • In other words, the majority of the Discussion and Conclusions sections should be   interpretation of your results. You should:
  • Discuss your conclusions in order of most to least important.
  • Compare your results with those from other studies: Are they consistent? If not, discuss possible reasons for the difference.
  • Mention any inconclusive results and explain them as best you can. You may suggest additional experiments needed to clarify your results.
  • Briefly describe the limitations of your study to show reviewers and readers that you have considered your experiment’s weaknesses. Many researchers are hesitant to do this as they feel it highlights the weaknesses in their research to the editor and reviewer. However doing this actually makes a positive impression of your paper as it makes it clear that you have an in depth understanding of your topic and can think objectively of your research.
  • Discuss what your results may mean for researchers in the same field as you, researchers in other fields, and the general public. How could your findings be applied?
  • State how your results extend the findings of previous studies.
  • If your findings are preliminary, suggest future studies that need to be carried out.

At the end of your Discussion and Conclusions sections, state your main conclusions once again.


Next: Images

For further support

We hope that with this tutorial you have a clearer idea of how the publication process works and feel confident in responding to editor and reviewers. Good luck with publishing your work!

If you feel that you would like some further support with writing your paper and understanding the peer review process, Springer Nature offer some services which may be of help.

  • Nature Research Editing Service offers high quality  English language and scientific editing. During language editing, Editors will improve the English in your manuscript to ensure the meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. With Scientific Editing experienced development editors will improve the scientific presentation of your research in your manuscript and cover letter, if supplied. They will also provide you with a report containing feedback on the most important issues identified during the edit, as well as journal recommendations.
  • Our affiliates American Journal Experts also provide English language editing* as well as other author services that may support you in preparing your manuscript.
  • We provide both online and face-to-face training for researchers on all aspects of the manuscript writing process.

* Please note, using an editing service is neither a requirement nor a guarantee of acceptance for publication. 

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