Accepted manuscript terms of use

Springer Nature Terms of Use for accepted manuscripts of subscription articles, books and chapters

The accepted manuscript (AM) is defined as the version of a manuscript accepted for publication after peer review, when applicable, but does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections, retractions, or other post-publication editorial actions. AM versions of articles, books and chapters published within the Springer Nature group of companies which are made available according to Springer Nature’s self-archiving policies for subscription articles and non-open access books/book chapters, remain subject to copyright, and, in most instances, an exclusive license to publish. Use of the AM version is solely governed by the terms agreed between Springer Nature and the respective rightsholder, the Springer Nature AM terms of use, and applicable law. By using an AM (for example, by accessing or downloading) the user agrees to abide by these Terms Of Use. Any further use is subject to written permission from Springer Nature. The terms of use are not intended to override any national law that grants further rights to any user. 

The following AM terms of use apply:

Academic research only

  • 1. Users may view, print, copy, download and text and data-mine the AM content, for the purposes of academic research, subject always to these Terms of Use. 
  • 2. Any AM content downloaded for text and data-mining purposes must be deleted or destroyed when the analysis is complete.

Use must not be for Commercial Purposes

  • 3. AM content may not be used for purposes that are intended for or directed towards commercial advantage or monetary compensation by means of sale, resale, licence, loan, transfer or any other form of commercial exploitation ("Commercial Purposes"). 

Wholesale re-publishing is prohibited

  • 4. AM content may not be published, or otherwise made available verbatim in whole or in part, whether or not this is done for Commercial Purposes, either in print or online, except as set forth in paragraph 5 below.  
  • 5. This restriction does not apply to reproducing normal quotations with an appropriate citation, in accordance with fair dealing, fair use, or other unwaivable copyright exception principles under applicable law.  In the case of text and data-mining, individual words, concepts and quotes up to 100 words per matching search return may be used, whereas longer paragraphs of text and images may not (without specific written permission from Springer Nature).

Reformatting and enhancement is prohibited

  • 6. Under no circumstances may Springer Nature AM content be reformatted or enhanced, whether by an Author or third parties.

Onward sharing is prohibited

  • 7. Provision or onward sharing of AM content to third parties without permission is prohibited, except as set forth in paragraph 5 above, and as permitted by applicable law.

Moral rights

  • 8. Users must ensure that the authors' moral right to the integrity of their work is not compromised.


  • 9. All use must be fully attributed.  Attribution must take the form of a citation and include a link - using the article, book, or book chapter DOI - to the published article, book, or book chapter on the publisher’s journal's website.
  • 10. For research integrity purposes it is best practice to cite the published Version of Record (VOR), where available (for example, see ICMJE’s guidelines on overlapping publications). Where users do not have access to the VOR, any citation must clearly indicate that the reference is to an AM version.

Third party content

  • 11. Where parts of AM content in the document is identified as belonging to a third party other than the rightsholder, authors, or the publisher, it is the obligation of the user to ensure that they have all rights necessary for their intended use and any use complies with copyright policies of the owner.

Use at user’s own risk

  • 12. Any use of Springer Nature AM content is at the user’s own risk and Springer Nature accepts no liability arising from such use. It is the user's obligation to check for any updates to the content by consulting the VOR.